Not only are our miraculous brains remarkably powerful; they have a high plasticity, especially in our younger years. The brain actually transforms sounds into music as the different areas interact with each other.

In principle, everyone is musical and has a basic understanding of rhythm and pitch. However, people with absolute pitch i.e. those who can identify the pitch of any note without the benefit of a reference tone, are not just lucky or musical wizards. People who grow up in a musically active family are more likely to retain this often innate ability. Children who learn to play an instrument at pre-school age also have a better chance of achieving absolute pitch. Perfect pitch recognition is therefore not only genetically predetermined; it can also be acquired through intensive training.

How much music alters the plasticity of the brain can be seen upon closer examination of the brain. Numerous studies that compare the brain structures of musicians with those of non-musicians identify neuroplastic differences. In a long-term study, researchers at the University of South California observed structural changes in the brains of school children who had received two years of musical instruction which they could not detect in the non-musical control group. [1]

[1] Childhood Music Training Induces Change in Micro and Macroscopic Brain Structure: Results from a Longitudinal Study. Habibi A et al. Cereb Cortex. 2018 Dec 1;28(12):4336-4347.